The church of

The church of Constantine (c. 335-39) Hypothetical floor of the primitive church of the Holy Apostles. According Crippa, the five domes would be already present in the Constantinian church. The first church of the Holy Apostles was built in time of Constantine, in the context of the construction of the new imperial capital. He was on a high point of the city, on the fourth hill, and near the line of walls of Constantine. It is not now a trace, as in time of Justinian was replaced by a new church and this, in turn, was replaced in 1469 by the Mosque of the Conqueror. Thus, any image that can make us of that first church is based on the description which Eusebius makes it in his Life of Constantine. According to this source and interpretation of Krautheimer, the church would be found free on a wide plateau surrounded by other public rooms such as bathrooms and meeting rooms.Krautheimer points to the Greek cross at the plant, discarding other possible configurations previously noted by other scholars. One arm of this cross, the access would be slightly longer than the other three. Less clear is whether each arm possess a single ship or, instead, would aisles. Moreover, it deals with the luxury of marble and gold, which respectively cover the walls and coffered ceilings. The building height would emphasize in particular its conical roof dome, located on the cruise. This area of the cruise is in this building a vital symbolic importance, as it is conceived as a space for the porphyry sarcophagus of Emperor Constantine, be flanked by a number of cenotaphs or pillars inscribed with the names of the twelve Apostles. Thus, the Church of the Holy Apostles is conceived not only as an apostolic martyrium but also as a mausoleum for an emperor who wants to be revered as the thirteenth of them.Thus, this church goes beyond a concept to become a martyr heroon, where the emperor, a hero, lies under the sign of the cross. This idea of heroon, who first recorded use to denote the Anastasis in Jerusalem, making pre-Christian concept is to collect a more representative example of which, as noted Crippa, would heroon of Alexander. Constantine, like Alexander in Alexandria, like Christ in the heavenly Jerusalem, appears in the center of the city showing their supremacy as the founder. So much was dared to show the emperor as a visual and symbolic center of architecture, the space was redesigned a few years later. In the years 356-57, when they were brought to the church actual relics of the Apostles, the remains of Constantine moved to a separate mausoleum, next to the temple. This new housing and burial was for the traditional approach by providing a circular domed roof.And is that typologically the original church of the Holy Apostles offers an unorthodox approach. While we consider it a martyrium offers new compared to other large martyria Christians as the Holy Sepulchre or the San Pedro, which lateralized burial space itself. Thus, while in these examples the area as martyrdom is hidden underground or is an appendix, in the case of Constantine the martyrium Apostoleion is a “self-centered construction of worship space.” Thus, the martyr’s heart area of the building and come together in the arms of the ships, which used to house the faithful. Appearance would provide the Church of the Holy Apostles to 1100-50, according to a thumbnail of the period.From the late fourth century until the beginning of V, a large number of churches took the of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople as a model, at least in two aspects: it offered its Greek-cross plan (in allusion to the Vera Cruz) and dedication to the Apostles. Sometimes the true Apostles can be replaced by a saint or “apostle” local. Krautheimer states as direct consequences of the church in Constantinople to Milan and Ravenna in the West, those of Ephesus and Antioch in Anatolia, and those in Gaza and Shechem in the Middle East. The same author also notes the influence on the formation of the basilica with a transept outgoing, like the city of Menas. However, despite the great influence he attributes to this building, delayed until the year 400 the status of Constantinople as first class architectural center.

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