Dark Age

Main article: Dark Ages “From the time of darkness at polis” This period corresponds to the emergence of Greece as a civilization from the eleventh century and the IX a. C. During the tenth century a. C. there was a process of urbanization in which several villages were grouped up to form cities like Sparta and Athens. The internal organization of these socio-political polis was dominated by primitive tribes or ethnos, households with clan (genos) and fraternities (phratries). These city-states were ruled by kings who exercised religious authority, military and political, except in Sparta where the authority of the kings began to be replaced by an authority composed of aristocratic landowners who could raise, maintain and ride their horses. Two other factors that formed a key role in the formation of Greek civilization was the establishment of a pan-Hellenic games like the Olympics that we know the “official” from the year 776 a. C.which underline the common features of the Greeks, and the two Homeric epics, Iliad and Odyssey, probably composed in the eighth century BCE C. The eighth century BCE C. was a revolutionary period for the formation of Greek civilization as the Phoenician alphabet is used to adapt the Greek language, it also improves the metallurgy of iron and agricultural techniques. This had resulted in the increase of population, which led to the need to migrate and establish colonies. These colonies metals and food sent to their mother countries and imported finished goods in return. This commercial prosperity, among other factors, led to the rapid establishment of the Greek city-state in the Aegean coast and its islands (at the end of that century there were more than 700 city-states).This wealth fueled increasingly yearning for political independence of the colonies regarding their cities, not always by peaceful means, which led to the creation of armies and military techniques improved as the heavy infantry (hoplites), which replaced the Previous hosts of cavalry. In general we can say that between the eighth and sixth centuries a. C., the Greek poleis experienced a transition from a monarchical system of government to an aristocracy. In the course of the social crisis of the seventh and sixth centuries a. C. went through a series of dictatorships (tyrants) and finally to a democratic government. Sparta followed a different course that kept the Dual Monarchy (diarchy), and after the War Medical developed a military organization that came to characterize it in the future.

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