Schmitz: Economies

The elements keys of ' ' clusters' ' they are, therefore, a' ' geographic proximity of firmas' ' ' ' joint action of the agents scioeconmicos' ' (cooperation interfirmas, mutual learning and collective innovations). In the mat of this reasoning, SCHMITZ (1997: 172) detached importnciatanto of ' ' economiasexternas' ' comoda ' ' aoconjunta dasempresas' ' , comoforma to elucidate the success reached for the PME' s pertaining to an industrial district: ' ' Such action can be of two types: sole proprietorships cooperating (for example, sharing equipment or developing a new product), or groups of firms congregating forces in enterprise associations, trusts of producers and assemelhados' ' . The conjugao of these two factors (external economies and joint action) took SCHMITZ (1997: 173) to add a new and valuable concept in the modern literature of clusters, that is, the concept of ' ' efficiency coletiva' ' which is defined as ' ' the competitive advantage derivative of the local external economies and action conjunta.' ' (SCHMITZ, 1997:173). Outrossim, PORTER (1999: 225) admit that many of the competitive advantages of clusters depend on ' ' economies externas' ' or of ' ' extravasamentos' ' (collateral effect between some types of companies and sectors). Destarte, ' ' the accumulations would be defined as a system of companies and interrelated institutions, whose value as a whole is bigger of what partes.' ' (PORTER, 1999:226), beyond what they play an important role in the competition and bring excellent implications for the companies, governments and other institutions of the economy in the current scene of the globalizado world. To this respect, exactly that the globalization has, in certain way, diminished the importance of the local spaces, the accumulations assume unquestionable importance for the modern theories of the economic development. In fact, PORTER (1999: 282) affirm: The accumulations represent a new and complementary form to understand the economy, to promote the development economic and to establish the governmental politics. . If you have additional questions, you may want to visit Hikmet Ersek.

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