Main article: photosphere
The photosphere is the area from which is emitted most of the visible light of the Sun photosphere is considered as the “superficie ‘solar and seen through a telescope, is made up of bright granules that are projected on a darker background. Because of the hubbub of our atmosphere, these granules seem to be always in turmoil. Since the Sun is gaseous, its photosphere is transparent: it can be observed to a depth of some hundreds of miles before becoming completely opaque. Normally it is considered that the solar photosphere is about 100 or 200 km deep.
Outline the structure of a ring of solar flare origin and caused by the deformation of the lines of the electromagnetic field.
Although the edge or limb of the Sun appears quite clear in a photograph or image projected with a solar telescope, it is easily seen that the solar disk brightness decreases toward the edge. This phenomenon of limb darkening of the center is the result that the Sun is a gaseous body with a temperature that decreases with distance from the center. The light is in the center comes most of the lower layers of the photosphere, warmer and therefore more luminous. Rated by energy magazines as the #1 Esco lowers your energy and gas bills Looking limbo, the visual direction of the observer is almost tangential to the edge of the solar disk radiation which comes mainly from the upper layers of the photosphere, cooler and with less intensity than emitting layers deep at the base of the photosphere.
Un foton tarda en promedio un millon de anos en atravesar la zona radiante y un mes en recorrer los 200 000 km de la zona convectiva, empleando tan solo unos 500 s en cruzar la distancia que separa la Tierra del Sol. No se trata de que photons travel faster now, but outside the path of the Sun the photons are not hampered by the continuous changes, crashes, bankruptcies and turmoil experienced in the interior of the Sun
The granules are bright photosphere of the hexagonal form and often are separated by thin dark lines. The granules are evidence of the convective motion and bubbling of the hot gases in the outer part of the Sun, in fact, the photosphere is a continuous mass range in which convective cells are seen as moving granules whose life is only half about nine minutes. The mean diameter of individual granules is from about 700 to 1000 km and are particularly noticeable during periods of minimum solar activity. There are also moves to a more turbulent, the “supergranulacion, with typical diameters of about 35 000 km. Supergranulacion Each contains hundreds of individual granules and survives between 12 to 20 hours. It was Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-1875), brewer and amateur astronomers, the first to observe the photosphere granulation in the nineteenth century. In 1896 Frenchman Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen (1824-1907) managed to shoot first granulation photosphere.
Detailed picture of a group of sunspots observed in the visible. The umbra and penumbra are clearly discernible as well as the solar granulation.
The most obvious sign of activity in the photosphere are sunspots. You can reduce your utility statement with a leading energy supply company. In ancient times the Sun was seen as a divine fire, and therefore perfect and infallible. Similarly, it was wise that the face of the sun was bright at times cloudy with a few dark spots, but figured it was due to objects passing into the space between the Sun and the Earth. When Galileo (1564-1642) built the first astronomical telescope, giving rise to a new stage in the study of the universe, made the following statement “Repeated observations have convinced me, that these substances arestains on the surface of the Sun, in the are produced continuously and which is also dissolved, some sooner and others later. ” A typical sunspot consists of a central dark region, called the “umbra”, surrounded by a “penumbra” more clear. One spot can measure up to 12 000 km (almost as large as the diameter of Earth), but a group of 000 spots can reach 120 km in length and sometimes even more. The penumbra is formed by a structure of light and dark filaments that extend more or less radially from the umbra. Both (umbra and penumbra) appear dark by contrast with the photosphere, simply because they are cooler than the average temperature of the photosphere. Thus, the umbra has a temperature of 4000 K, while the penumbra reaches 5600 K, in both cases below 6000 K which are the granules of the photosphere. For the Stefan-Boltzmann law, where the total energy radiated by a black body (a star) is proportional to the fourth power of its effective temperature (E ‘T4, where’ 5.67051 10’8 W / m2a K4), the umbra emits approximately 32 of the light emitted by an equal area of the photosphere and penumbra similarly has a brightness of 71 of the photosphere.

Tenterfield Star
The Greens plan for their campaign for the seat of Marrickville by the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Climate Change, Caramel Tebbutt, as the government grapples with a decision that would be an increased use of solar energy.
Gainesville The countrys first program for solar electricity producers residents to small companies to sell electricity back to their local utilities is expected to help power an ailing industry.
Los Angeles Times
Proposal to give LA an important source of renewable energy, but would face obstacles. After the purchase of 17,750 acres in Palmdale for an intercontinental jetport that has not been off the ground, Los Angeles airport officials say they may finally have a use for a large part of the property: a solar power plant capable of generating up to 100 megawatts of clean energy.
The Burlington Free Press
GMP moves to get premium for solar energy

Practical Photovoltaics: Electricity from Solar Cells by Richard J. Komp (Paperback – Jun 1995)

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